Реферат: "Cultural imperialism" and "cultural diplomacy" /english/ (RTF)
Perhaps, cultural imperialism and cultural diplomacy are sufficiently
young, but it concerns only word combinations. Mankind always tries to
chose definitions to different phenomena, in particular in sphere of
politics, in such way the words ideology, myth, propaganda have
Cultural imperialism and cultural diplomacy can be considered just as
more or less aggressive method of propaganda activity.
The process of clearance of relationship between journalism and
propaganda is as two instruments of cultural diplomacy and cultural
What is the aim of cultural diplomacy and cultural imperialism: forming
of political regimes, decision of some economical problems or something
else? A large use of considering definitions makes doubts that the aim
of spreading ideas can be contain in one word. Most probably it is a
complex of aims. But what politics is more successful? Whip politics or
New epoch, epoch of globalization, epoch of powerful mass media has
opened new opportunities for propaganda. A man is grasped from TV every
day; the material chosen by journalists has turned out in a stream of
huge amount of information. It is [TV] the crucial source of information
about the outside world. (Negrine op. Cit., ibid., p. 100). Naturally
that if even journalists have no enough time for interpretation of the
information, what hopes may be for average spectator to interpret this
information correctly. TV is a heavily selected interpretation of events
(R. Hoggart Bad news. London, 1976, p.x.). In the stream of the
information a spectator managed by own prejudices and moral brought from
without is building from the information knots a picture of his own
world. People received the opportunity to know so many things without
learning anything. At the sense level a person understands that he is
manipulated (probably because of that spectators appreciation of
journalists are so low). From the other side the information containing
burning topics of the day, sharply and easily for understanding given,
wakes up in a person so powerful impulse which its very difficult not
to be obeyed. As never before a man has become such unprotected
against foreign influence, the question is what ideology will be more
correct key for this or that country. From the other side despite
that a man has learned to get over large distances for a short time,
people have not became closer one another. It may be called the theory
of unknown people. Unknown people are making clothes for us, selling
foods, unknown people are defending us as a Police, unknown people are
teaching our children, building our houses. When we are traveling by
bus or by plane our lives are in the hands of unknown people. Why not to
let these unknown people to take possessions of our minds (through TV
and sound speakers)?
May be supposed that this space being free from critical interpretation
in human consciousness offers the opportunity for enforcing of culture
(in context of cultural imperialism). But aforementioned statement has
reverse side as well. Since the borders between that as supposed is
personal and private and that is not so, have no the same sense as were
before, people have worked out the immunity against information
The opportunity of comparison may have its influence; access to large
amount of information let people to compare thrusting ideas with the
reality. Thus the slogan Dreamland is good because it is wonderful is
not working any more.
Before the World War II in world politics only 10 countries played
essential part. After the War practically all countries began to play
their parts in the world politics. Economical and political reasons
have come to the situation when the ideology has become the well
developed science. Cultural imperialism as well as cultural diplomacy
have appeared in the result of development of ideology and propaganda.
Differentiation of ideology, foundation of politics-ideological
complexes, access of scientists to practical politics (J. Kennedy, T.
Kissinger) and taking part of scientists in creation of ideological
systems as well as organization of expert centers in this field - all
these resulted in foundation of whole system of measures on foreign
policy, particularly in cultural diplomacy.
A needful influence using rude methods of cultural imperialism can be
hardly have an affect, countries at which the cultural imperialism can
be aimed have too probable chance of maneuver. Cultural diplomacy and
cultural imperialism as a part of ideological war became a strategic
weapon using a subtle instruments of influence. Perhaps Chechen War
became one of the failures of cultural imperialism. Here should be
mentioned that religious factor has played an important part. It is one
of the reason that confirms impossibility of rude influence can be
It may be supposed that a peace after the war in Chechen, long-drawn-out
Israel - Palestine conflict and Desert fox, is in condition of
sufficient fragile balance, that can be ground for conclusion that
cultural imperialism isnt applicable at all, since it would directed at
a country playing an insignificant part in world politics, and would be
identified in time and met by opposite measures, consequences might be
On the contrary cultural diplomacy is the war without victims. To avoid
any impact of cultural diplomacy a country can only in case of the
isolation from foreign world is available (Iraq, North Korea). Since
that it is one of the sign of the totalitarian state, but its not
excluded that the regime will aim its powerful ideological machine at
its people. Its all the same for the cultural imperialism but only
within the limits of one state. If one of the purposes of cultural
imperialism in foreign policy would be the spreading of a political
regime, so in case of totalitarian country the aim of propaganda,
creation of myths, ideology became in general the support of a regime.
Too much energy must be spent for the support of information units.
Supposedly that cultural imperialism as well as cultural diplomacy is
aimed by one country or a group of countries at other country. Sometimes
instruments of political influence are aimed at population of the own
state, for example at representatives of a large group of national
minority. In this case the use of aggressive methods of cultural
imperialism can not be acceptable, since in this way a serious national
conflict can be provoked and the chain of ones has flushed within the
territory of the former USSR in the beginning of 90-th years.
Real needs including economical reasons in regular spreading of the
information have occurred. Needs in instrument of selecting of this
information have came. In practice it could be realized together with
the development of technique of printing of books in XV - XVI centuries,
when in Europe the first periodical press appeared. Journalism became
a special type of activity. Propaganda started its development earlier:
the method of influence upon the opponent, social political instrument
of classes. The relationship between paper and reader was this being
changed from the ideal one of a tutorial and intellectual nature, to one
of a market character. (A.J. Lee The Origins of the Popular Press 1855 -
1914, London, 1976, p. 121).
Journalism may be non-connected with politics, but propaganda can not.
As a powerful weapon propaganda always aspires to enlarge an
application of its instrument: the word was added by a text in
writing. (Pamphlets, leaflets of the time of the Peasants War in
Germany, Pugachyovs letters).
Journalism perhaps from the moment of its birth has grasped 3 functions.
The first one is the selecting and lighting of the facts of every day
life, the second function is the spreading of appraisals and minds and
the third one is different shows.
The complication of relationship of such definitions as journalism and
propaganda is determined by that the journalism is more special
definition regarding to propaganda. The phenomenon of journalism has
many senses. The periodical press has wider sphere of interests than
propaganda. It includes every day informing about facts and actual
events. In this respect propaganda is a part of periodical presswork.
From the other side journalism is the complexity of technical means of
circulation of information messages and materials of propaganda
(newspapers, TV, radio) and at this way journalism is one of the
instruments of propaganda machine. Propaganda has its own distinguishing
features in application of means and weapons of its influence. In its
arsenal there are placards, leaflets, photos, means of mass media.
Journalism addresses only a large auditorium and its activity can be
determined by system of means specially foreseen for circulation of its
publications. Propaganda is an ever-lasting companion of the periodical
press; therefore many journalists are propagandists as well. Even in the
media there are many propaganda materials or materials related to
propaganda, are beyond from periodical press. Newspapers are publishing
official governmental messages; TV canals are carrying out direct
translations from meetings. This propaganda can not be related to own
creations of journalists, therefore for calling of the propaganda, which
is professional work of journalists, can be used the term Journalism
Periodical press has its an important mobilizing influence upon people
and stimulates social activity as well. It seems that journalism is
called as literature made in a hurry and in comparison with classical
fiction literature it (journalism) must have less influence. A fiction
literature uses more sharp, more bright and figurative word. But
journalism, probably because of effect of participation, has the
strongest impulse influence upon minds, directions and behavior of
people. Perhaps one of the secrets of this influence is the unique
combination of means, which are available for journalism. Reality of the
fact which has been taken from the present day plus magnetic strength of
an idea plus understandable word and representation. Disappearance of
one of these three above-mentioned means destroys a complex of the
modern journalism. For periodical press a conjunction of three
components: energy, propaganda and publicity, - may be compulsory, since
its the strong factor of influence upon a social consciousness.
Propaganda is closely bound with a science ideology. The ideology partly
is the method of thinking which taken from without as well as propaganda
serves for ideology can not contain such idealism definitions as truth,
objectivity, impartiality. According to its character propaganda is
tendentious but not objective.
Soviet theoretic scientists have been tried to prove Scientific features
of propaganda through the term the true of an idea or a mind
recognizing by that the right of elite, making up socials myths and
ideology, to operate with human consciousness.
Though propaganda always brings to a man a moral and directions ab
extra. The question is at what degree a man can be operated and how many
different ideologies are aimed at a man, has a person the opportunity of
a choice in that - what illusion can be used?
It should be mentioned that mass media at the definite point must
support political power as well as state structure. So long as
newspapers remain cure of political authority, they are beyond
criticism; once they challenge that authority, they suffer the full
force of its reaction (R. Negrine Politics and the Mass Media in
Britain. London. 1994. P. 47 - 48).
Is a hamburger the part of national politics? Who is more popular: Uncle
Sam or Mickey Mouse? Can Michael Jackson, for example, to inculcate a
love to American culture? These questions could be analyzed through the
theory of creation of myths.
It s necessary to mention that creation of myths as well as ideology and
propaganda comes sufficiently closely to determination of cultural
diplomacy. If the following interpretation of creation of myths would
available: as the process of constructing of the image system with the
subject presented as essential for a person social reality, in this case
the difference with the subject of cultural diplomacy is not so large.
In case of making the question more simply and to determine the aim of a
myth is to provide the opportunity of orientation, the difference with
the purposes of cultural diplomacy becomes less. The problem is as usual
since in context of political science (Ortega, Gasset) myth is bound
closely with political elite which is working out political myths
spreading upon all around. In myth there is not limits, but cultural
diplomacy is aimed at determined real subject. In this case myths making
up by cultural diplomacy are concerning the creation of myths as a part
is related to whole object.
Returning to aforementioned it may be concluded that a numerous industry
of amusements or pop industry can not bring all load of cultural
diplomacy. Positive impressions of culture of a state must be formed in
development. The word diplomacy supposes not impulses but a process of
thinking. The impulses are corresponding to mass industry and love for
popular music is going away so quickly as a feeling of satiety after
eating a hamburger.
Besides that since cultural diplomacy is leaning for the support of the
elite and the influence must be extended to the most intelligent and
educated population therefore the instruments must be delicate. For
example the song of Elton John Yellow Brick Road never can inculcate the
love to England but if the sound track would be provided by
representation of the Big Ben, House of Parlament and other great
creations of British architecture, an excellent result might be
Thus for the cultural diplomacy it would be more reasonable to sell the
TV picture Variety Fair with damage than to earn much on a pop-star
It can be supposed that if the pop-industry is always aimed at earning
money, cultural diplomacy has to work with damage for itself and able
to make money only in indirect way. In general the distinguishing
feature of pop-industry is internationalism, for example, the Disneyland
is available not only in the USA but the Freedom Stature can be seen
only in the United States of America. Instruments of cultural diplomacy
as well as cultural imperialism must be unique.
Why the rude methods of cultural imperialism have not been refused at
all? Probably in this period these are more operative. In one of Eric
Bernes book the following example was described: when grasshoppers were
offered to two groups of people and the first group was made to eat the
insects up and the other group was just offered to test them. In
result those people who were made to eat the insects, in general,
called the taste qualities of grasshoppers as good. The other group
which just tested of its own free will said negatively about its tastes.
Eric Berne explained this case by one of the quality of the human
psychic: when something is imposed to a person our mind makes us to love
it. In any case for a some time. The other reaction when this influence
is finishing. In the time of the cold war many Western radio programs
can be heard in the USSR, such as The Voice of America, Radio Liberty.
After the disintegration of the USSR very tendentious The Voice of
America became non-interesting and lost its audience.
By the way it did not enlarge the sympathy to the USA. It may be too
For example can be used a powerful agitation USSRs influence upon the
former members of East system and what it resulted in afterwards. All
examples have one common feature: an action always turns by opposite
action. Even an action of political pressure such as Soviet tanks in
Czechoslovakia, Afghanistan and Chechen, American B 52 over Vietnam and
rackets Patriot over Baghdad. Regardless of that how many years or days
mankind has come without wars, the methods of rude influence will be
continued in future The question of effectiveness of these measures is
In the time of running of Napoleon the newspapers of France started to
describe this event beginning from the titles such as the Blood-thirsty
Tyrant Got away from a Cage and this events were finished in articles as
The Emperor is taking his throne. This particularity of journalism has
been available till present time.
However despite that which methods have been applied: mild or heavy,
cultural politics must be understood by them for whom it has been
carried on. Therefore its hardly to say about cultural imperialism, for
example, provided by CNN in respect of Russia or China, or Japan. There
an English speech can not been understood. In general, a large ethnic
groups in respect of their language are very conservative, feeling
itself in its consciousness as a part of a huge language group. In this
connection one American saying is very interesting: a person who speaks
one language is a citizen, a person streaking two languages is an
immigrant, three languages is a vagrant. When its known before that the
words wont be understood a statement can be impressed by gestures
(Khrushchovs shoe in the session of UN) or by understandable images
(Iraq tanks in Kuwait).
If the military conflicts would be left , since state and commence
electronic mass media must lead determined policy, because on the
contrary (TV is a heavily selected interpretation of events (R. Hoggart
Bad news. London, 1976, p.x.)), and cultural imperialism is becoming
more and more active. In case of considering a journalism as an
important transmitter of state propaganda or ideology, in the most
powerful and developed countries the chain: government - journalist -
audience wont be full because of principle of pluralism, equality of
political factors and institutions. Besides that since the competition
fights for audience the modern mass media lost their opportunity for
strategic planning. For instance even the USA has worked at the image of
its country shown the interrogation of the USA President. For the
politics of the USA this fact is not positive. But the modern regulation
of mass media played here their part. Perhaps, the commerce protects
people from any kinds of imperialism. International bodies and
international competitive pressures are having an impact on the
development of national structures of Broadcasting (Negrine. Op.cit. p.
As a summary of this work several general moments can be mentioned. At
present time an opportunity of the manipulation with human
consciousness, is especially real as never before since a spectator
a huge amount of information which can not grasp it.
From the other side an opportunity of influence became weaker because of
the increasing opportunity for comparison, the information became more
assessable and the one of the particular feature of foreign policy
became taking part of almost all countries of the world. Therefore a
chance of the influence upon the more non-developed countries using the
powerful methods of the cultural imperialism are minimized.
The opportunity of defend of oneself from the power influence has
increased proportionally to increasing of the influence of the world
community where all countries take essential part.
In this work the statements interpreting the conjunction between
journalism and propaganda (weapon of any foreign and inside influence).
However at present time journalists are being more interested in
sensations, show and dynamics of programs. Therefore means of mass media
which without doubt multi - level structures can exist for means
received from advertise sale: thus they are less interested in social
orders. In this situation commerce can protect an audience from
ideological influence. Though for some observers the globalization of
journalism carries with it the threat of cultural imperialism - the
dissemination across the planet of a journalism dominated largely by
North American (read CNN) values, agendas, and ideological assumptions.
(Brian McNair News and Journalism in the UK. London, 1994, p. 188.
Cultural diplomacy in contradistinction to pressure influence of
cultural imperialism, probably must influence upon elite classes
negatively. Since the educated people grasp rude propaganda methods at
once and in many cases able to separate information from ideology and
infotainment as well. Thus rude methods of industry will not work here.
For easier understanding it can be supposed that well done programm on
Discovery Canal about, for example, American Air Forces of the World War
II had more influence effect than the a direct translation of CNN about
bombardment of Baghdad.
In conclusion it s desirable to impress a hope that the rude methods
has been finished at least in respect of actual participants of the
Type of reference:Example of reference:BookA.J. Lee (1976) The Origins
of Popular Press. 1855 - 1914, London, p. 121BookR. Negrine (1994)
Politics and the Mass Media in Britain, London,
p. 47 - 48BookR. Hoggart Bad News, (1976), London, p.x.BookBrian McNair
(1994) News and Journalism in the UK, London, p. 188BookA. Briggs,
(1979) Governing the BBC, London, p. 211BookR. Friedman (1992) American